Posted: March 25, 2011 in Uncategorized


When making a critical study of a translation from one language into another, there are a number of points that may or may not be taken into consideration. One of the most common issues of discussion is whether or not a translation should be as literal as possible. A literal translation, while preserving the author’s wording, loses the nuances of the original; while a free translation can capture more of these nuances, although it is, in fact, a rewriting of the original. The translator has to take a middle course, but he also has to accept the fact that the same text cannot exist in two languages. This implies that everything cannot be translated, a problem which will be discussed in more detail further down in this essay.
Several papers, essays and theses have been written on the subject of translation; most of them, however, approach the topic solely from a scholar’s point of view. By studying actual translations and then interviewing the translator, I have endeavoured to look more at the practitioner’s side of the subject. The scope of the essay has limited my research to one author, which means that few or no general rules for translating can be extracted from my investigations. This, however, was not my goal.
Translation is basically a chance of form. When we speak of the form of language, we are referring to the actual words. Phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraph, etc. which are spoken or written, translation, consist of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language translation, then, consist of studying the lexicon, grammatical, structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon, grammatical structure, which are appropriate in the reception language and its cultural context. (Mildred Larson: 3)


THTHljl ljlkjkjkj

There are certain characteristics of language which have very direct bearing on principle of translation.
1. let us look at the characteristic of meaning components.
Meaning component are package, into lexical items, but they are “packaged’ differently in one language than in other. In most language age there is a meaning plurality, for example the English –s. This often occur in the grammar as a suffix or the nouns or verb or both.
Example :
a he runs b. they run
a. he sits c. they sit
2. It is characteristic of languages that the same meaning component will occur in several surface lexical item (form). In English, the words sheep occurs. However, the words lamb, ram, and ewe also include the meaning sheep. They include the additional meaning component of young (in lamb), adult and male (in ram), and adult, and female (in ewe).
3. It is further characteristic of language that one form will be used to represent several alternative meaning. This again is obvious from looking in any good dictionary. For example, the reader’s Degest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary gives 54 meaning for the English word run.
To translate the form of one language literally according to the corresponding form in another language would often change the meaning, or at least result in a form which is unnatural in the second language meaning must, therefore, have priority over from in translation. It is meaning which is to be carried over the form the source language, not the linguistic form.. for example to translate phrase he is cold hearted , i.e. his heard is cold (meaning “he is unfeeling, has no emotional sympathy”) literally into Mambila (Nigeria) would be understood to mean he is peaceful, not quick-tempered and if translated into Cinyanza (Zambia), it would be mean he is afraid (Barnwell) 1980:12). In this case, it is not secondary meaning but figurative meaning which is causing the difference.
Unless the source language and the receptor language are closely related languages, from the same language family, it is not likely that there will be much correspondence of form between a source text the translation. The goal of a translator should be to produce a receptor language text (a translation) which is idiomatic, that is, one which has the same meaning of the source language but is expressed in the natural form of the receptor language. The meaning, not the form, is retained.



I. Word-for-word Translation

The SL word-order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of text. Cultural are translated literally. The main use of word-for-word translation is either to understand the mechanic of the source language or to construe a difficult text as a pre-translation process.
II. Literal Translation
The SL grammatical construction are converted to their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. As a pre-translation process, this indicates the problems to be solved.
III. Faithful Translation
A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constrains of the TL grammatical structures. It ‘transfers’ cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical or lexical ‘abnormality” (deviation from SL norms) in the translation. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realisation of the SL writer.
IV. Semantic Translation
Semantic translation differs from ‘faithful translation’ only in as far as it must take. The distinction between ‘faithful’ and ‘semantic’ translation is that the first is uncompromising and dogmatic, while the second is more flexible, admits the creative exception to 100 % fidelity and allows for the translator’s intuitive empathy with the original.
V. Adaptation
This is the ‘freest’ from of translation. It used mainly for play (comedies) and poetry, the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture converted to the TL culture and the text rewritten.

VI. Free Translation
Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of original. Usually it is paraphrase much longer than original., a so-called ‘intra lingual translation’, often prolix and pretentious, and not translation at all.
VII. Idiomatic Translation
Idiomatic translation reproduces the ‘message’ of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.
VIII. Communicative translation
Communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original is such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership.

I. Service Translation
Translation from one’s language of habitual use into another language.
II. Plan Prose Translation
The prose translation of poems and poetic drama initiated by E. V. Rieu for Penguin Books. Plain prose translations are often publish in parallel with their originals, to which, after a careful word-for-word comparison, they provide ready and full access.
III. Information Translation
This conveys all the information in a non literally-text, sometimes rearranged in more logical form, sometimes partially summarized, and not in the form of a paraphrase.
IV. Cognitive Translation
This produces the information an a SL text converting the SL grammar to its normal TL transposition. Normally reducing any figurative to literal language.

V. Academic Translation
This type of translation, practiced in some British universities, reduces an original SL text to an ‘elegant’ idiomatic educated TL version which (non-existent) literary register.
One is form based and the other is meaning-based. From-based translation attempt to follow the form of the source language text in the natural form of the receptor language.
Although these literal translation my be very useful purposes related to the study of the source language. A literal translation sound like nonsense and has little communication value.
Most translator who tend to translate literally actually make actually modified literal translation. The modified literal translation changed the order to English structure, not communicate in clear English follow the form of source text they choose equivalents for the words. Nonsensical, unclear, unnatural, to avoid real nonsense and wrong meaning, unnaturalness still remains. Use the natural forms of the receptor language , in the grammatical construction of lexical items. Does not like sound like a translation it was written originally in the receptor language. Translate idiomatically a mixture of a literal transfer of the grammatical some part in very natural form other part fall back in to literal form . Translation fall on a continuum form very literal, to literal, to modified literal, to near idiomatic, to idiomatic, and then may even move on to be unduly free.
Unduly free if they add extraneous information ,if they change the meaning of the source language.
The translator goals should be to reproduce in the receptor language a text which communicates the same message as the source language but using the natural grammatical and lexical choices of the receptor language. Danger interference from the form of the source language.
I. Translating Grammatical Features
II. Translating Lexical Feature
Problem of translation Solution of translation
1. Un accurate, unnatural, unclear
2. Difficult exegetical questions
3. Literal and free translation
4. equivalent of information content
5. Bilingual
6. Semantic Field
7. Non Equivalence
* Culture-specific concepts.
* The source language concept is not
lexicalized in the target language
• The source-language word is semantically complex
• The source and target language make different distinctions in meaning
• The target language lacks a super-ordinate
• The target language lacks a specific term
• Differences in physical or interpersonal perspective
• Differences in expressive
1. The entire must be checked for each one the translator, consultants, testers, and reviewer work together with one goal to make the translation as accurate, clear, and natural as possible.
2. A consultant
3. By omitted, replacement, addition.
4. Comparison with the source language
5. Back-Translation
6. * Appreciating the value that a word has in given system
* Developing strategies for dealing with non-equivalence
* Understanding the difference in the structure of semantic fields in the source and target languages allows a translator to assess the value of a given item in lexical set.
(d). semantic fields are arranged hierarchically, going from the general to the more specific.
7. * Translator by a more general word (super-ordinate)

Problem of translation Solution of translation
• Meaning differences in form
• Differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms
• The use of loan words in the source text
8. Idioms
a) An idiom or fixed expression may have no equivalent in the target language.
b) An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its context of use may be different ; the two expression my have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be pragmatically transferable.
c) An idiom may used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time.
• Translation by a more neutral / less expressive word
• Translation by cultural substitution
• Translation using loan word or loan word plus explanation
• Translation by paraphrase using unrelated words
• Translation by omission
Translation by illustration
8. a) Using an idiom of similar meaning and form
b) Using an idiom of similar meaning but dissimilar form
c) Translation by paraphrase
d) Translation by omission
example bury the hatchet or the long and the short of it
a. Change the order of the word in it (e.g *the short and the long of it’);
b). Delete a word form it (e.g *spill beans’);
c). Add a word to it (e.g. * the tall and short of it ; *’the classical music ‘);
d). Replace word with another (e.g *’the tall and the short of it’; *bury a hatchet);
e).change its grammatical structure (e.g *’the music was face’).

There Are requirement for good translation :

1. Mastering of source language SL
2. Mastering target language TL
3. Having the knowledge of translating principles
4. Having the knowledge of the subject / content background
5. Having adequate access references
6. Having knowledge characteristic of language which affect translation
7. Mastering kinds of translation
8. Knowing the semantic structure language
9. Knowing Implicit meaning
10. Knowing equivalent and non equivalent at word level
11. The problem of non equivalent at word level
12. Knowing idioms and fixed expressions
13. Knowing the role of context
14. Knowing translation procedures
15. Knowing translation an culture
16. Having Knowledge Types of Translation
17. Having Knowledge Methode of Translation
18. Knowing Problem and Solution in Translation
19. Knowing Process in Translation
In the course of this investigation, I have drawn a few conclusions about the characteristics of a ‘good’ translator. Of course, I do not attempt to draw up any rules, nor do I claim to be able to recognise a good translator from a bad one; the points I am about to make are to a large extent my own opinions and they are, as I stated in the introduction, chiefly meant to serve as topics for further discussion.
The most important thing for any translator of fiction is to know the author he translates, in the sense that he is familiar with his objectives for writing, the audience for which the text was originally intended, and any likely or unlikely sources of inspiration for the text. It cannot be denied that all authors are influenced by external phenomena; it might be other authors, deeply religious feelings or a fascination for motion pictures. Likewise, there are external sources which are less likely to influence each particular author: if an author dislikes the works of another author very strongly, he is less inclined to be affected by them, and an author who always lived in a big city would not likely be influenced by rural life. A good translator should be aware of the sources of inspiration and influence for the author whose works he is about to translate. In section two of this essay, I gave some of the sources of inspiration of Terry Pratchett’s; the fact that he is a fantasy author also tells us that he is likely to be influenced by other authors in the same genre. Thus, the translator must be rather well-read, in order to be familiar with the literary sources of inspiration for the author in question. It is also desirable that he is acquainted with the author’s cultural background, to understand particularities which concern the earlier mentioned ’embedding’ in a cultural sphere.
The second thing which any translator must be aware of is the TL readers, who may expect an exactly similar reading experience as that of the SL readers. This is an impossible thing, and any translator who aims for that goal must inevitably be disappointed, as showed in section 3.1. All readers will not have the same expectations, depending on what background they have, and also on whether or not they have read the original text. If the translator tries to translate and transfer as much as possible in order to get a similar feeling in the TL cultural sphere as the one in the SL text, he will be criticised by readers who want him to keep the SL cultural sphere feeling, as discussed in 2.1. My opinion regarding this problem is that what is important is to endeavour to reproduce the general atmosphere of the original in a translated version. This is best done by transferring as much as possible into TL equivalents, which will give those readers who cannot, or do not want to, read the original a reading experience in their own language similar to that of the original readers in the SL.
What is important in order to capture the atmosphere in Terry Pratchett’s novels and transfer it to another language? I have already stated the fact that his texts contain a large number of humorous plays on words, as well as instances of parody. Since much of the humorous effect is based on the use of the English language, much of it is lost in a translated version of the text, even if part of it is transferred rather than translated in order to make a joke in the TL too. When possible, the translator should use the TL in the same way as Pratchett used the SL, to make new puns which were not possible to make in English. It must, however, be noted that this is a step away from actual translation, and the consent of the author must always be received before a translator may attempt to transform the text in this fashion.
This leads to a further point which is important in the discussion of the good translator. Naturally, he must possess a stylistic skill in his own language in order to make a tolerable representation of a work in another language, as was pointed out in 2.1 and 3.2. It must not be forgotten, however, that stylistic skill is judged very differently; what is considered well-expressed by one person may very well be discarded as bad language


Translator is concerned that the result of his work be a good quality translation. How the translator know if he has succeeded or not? He must be willing not only to check it carefully himself but also to expose it to testing several kinds. A translation which does not effectively communicate the message of the source text is of limited value. The translator has wasted his time. Even if some one published it, people will not buy it and used it And so the procedures involved testing the translation are a very important step in the total project .
Four aspects of testing will support education in translation
Will be discussed below :
1. Why test the translation
There are three main reasons for testing a translation. The translator to be sure his translation is accurate, clear, and natural. These three features are important throughout the translation, so the entire translation must be checked for each one.
The second reason for testing a translation is to be sure that it is very clear. The form of the language used should be those which make the message of the source text as easy to understand as the source text it self was to under stand.
The third reason for testing is to sure that it is natural. A translation may be accurate in that the translator understood correctly the source text and this attempting to communicate that information, and it may even by understand and yet the form may not be the natural idiomatic form .of the receptor language. The translation must be tested to see if the grammatical forms used are normally used. Does the translation “ flow” easily ? Does it “sound right” to the speakers of the language or does it sound “foreign.” When we hear foreigners speak our language, we can often understand them. The message is accurate clear but at the same time, they sound strange. The translator doesn’t want his translation to sound “strange” or foreign.” He want it sound natural. As if weren’t even a translation, but an original composition in the receptor language.
2. Who the test translation?
The translation will be of better quality if several people are involved in testing. Of course, the translator himself will do a lot of careful checking and testing. He will need to be responsible for what are called Self-checks. He may also do the comprehension testing. In that way, the consultant can encourage the translator throughout the project and help him learn how to apply the principles he has learned. It is good if each translation project has some testers. The translators, consultants, testers, and reviewers, will all need to work together with on goal – to make the translation as accurate, clear, and natural as possible.
3. Way of testing a translation.
There are several way of testing a translation:
1) Comparison with the source text
2) Back translation in to the source language
3) Comprehension checks
4) Naturalness and readability testing an finally
5) Consistency checks
Whatever kind of checking is being done, it need to be done systematically and notes need to be taken carefully. A “ hit-or miss” kind o checking will not lead to quality translation.
4. Using the testing result
The translation testing result should be left on file until the final draft. Certain result are more beneficial at on time in the process and other result at other times. After the initial draft is completed, it will be very helpful to the translator if he himself does some readability checks and comprehension checks with various people. The reworking of the initial draft result in the second draft. A third draft, the revision draft, is then made by translator incorporating the information into the draft. Once the revised draft is completed, some consistency checking may need to be done again. The final draft will then need to be checked very carefully for consistency in technical matters and proof read a number of times. If a number people can read through it completely, this will give the best check of the final draft.


In other Word, Mona Bake
A textbook of Translation , Peter Newmark
Meaning Base Translation, Mildred Larson. University Press of America.


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